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The global crude oil market is estimated to witness an impressive growth rate owing to the rising demand for crude oil from diverse end user industries and increase in exports. Crude oil is being ranked as number one export product across the globe. It accounted for around 4.8% of the global value of all the export products. In 2015, the crude oil shipments came to a total of $786.3 billion. During the same period, Middle Eastern countries accounted for the maximum dollar value worth of crude oil exports. Middle East region accounted for 41.3% of global crude oil exports or can be valued at $325 billion. The increasing number of exports indicates the rising demand for crude oil which in turn boosts the overall crude oil market growth. Expansion of the transportation sector in China and other OECD countries is also anticipated to drive the global crude oil market. Transportation in China has witnessed significant growth and expansion, mainly due to the high growth in population. Petroleum fuels are extracted from crude oils, which mainly influences the demand for crude oil. In transportation, the fuels that are majorly used as energy source include diesel fuel, gasoline, residual fuel oil, jet fuel and liquid petroleum gases. In the U.S., these fuels provided around 92% of the overall energy used by the transportation sector in 2014. Apart from these factors, declining tax rates on oil production and improving efficiency in oil consumption is also attributing towards the growth of crude oil market.
Moreover, volatile crude oil prices are expected to hamper the growth of the crude oil market. Along with it, slowdown in economic growth in China and seasonal changes in weather also impacts the demand for crude oil. For instance, in winters, more heating oil is consumed in comparison to other seasons. The extreme winter conditions such as thunderstorms, hurricanes and tornadoes can physically impact the infrastructure and production facilities disrupting the oil supply and induce pricing spikes. Rising demand for end use products of crude oil and growth in the emerging markets can offer significant growth opportunities for the global crude oil market.
The global crude oil market can be segregated on the basis of end products including gasoline, diesel fuel & heating oil, jet fuel, LPG, asphalt and other products. The gasoline market holds the largest market share on the basis of production globally. It accounts for roughly 47% of all refinery products. According to U.S. Energy Information Administration, the consumption of motor gasoline is anticipated to grow from 9.16 million barrels per day in 2015 to 9.31 million barrels by 2016. In the U.S., gasoline is the dominant transportation fuel used. In 2014, gasoline accounted for around 56% of the overall U.S. transportation energy use. This fuel type is majorly used by motorcycles, cars and light trucks. Therefore, the rising demand for automobiles is expected to have a significant impact on the demand for gasoline.
The geographic analysis of crude oil market includes North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East and North Africa and Latin America. In 2015, Middle East and Africa accounted for the largest market share in the global crude oil market on the basis of production. MENA accounts for 60% of the global oil reserves owing to substantial petroleum and natural gas reserves within the region. It is also being considered as a significant source of economic stability. The high production rates of Middle East and African countries had a major impact on the regional growth. In 2015, Saudi Arabia had an average crude oil production of 11.62 million barrels per day. It has only few giant fields and around 95% of the crude oil is extracted from just eight major fields. Moreover, North America is expected to grow at a significant growth rate owing to the advent of shale gas reserves which has impacted the crude oil production within the region.
The key market players of crude oil market include Sinopec,China National Petroleum Corp., Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, BP Global, Saudi Aramco, Total S.A., Chevron Corp., Kuwait Petroleum Corp. and Lukoil. The key strategies adopted by the major market players include mergers & acquisitions, expansion and strategic collaborations. In July 2016, ExxonMobil announced the expansion of its Beaumont refinery. The cost of expansion is valued around $450 million. This expansion is expected to increase the production of ultra-low sulfur fuels by around 40,000 barrels per day. In February 2016, Royal Dutch Shell acquired BG Group for strengthening its position in the Brazilian oil market. The acquisition was valued around $53 billion.
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